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2017年考研英語二真題答案解析(解析版)

正?佳薪逃W整理   2016-12-27 10:37 【 】【我要糾錯

National Entrance Test of English for MA/MS Candidates (NETEM)

2017年全國碩士研究生入學統一考試英語(二)

Section I Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

People have speculated for centuries about a future without work. Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again _1_ that technology be replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by _2_. A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.

A different and not mutually exclusive _3_ holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one _4_ by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives _5_, people will simply become lazy and depressed. _6_, today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for _7_ Americans. Also, some research suggests that the _8_ for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting _9_ poorly-educated middle-aged people is shortage of well-paid jobs. Perhaps this is why many _10_ the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.

But it doesn’t _11_ follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease. Such visions are based on the _12_ of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the _13_ of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could _14_ strikingly different circumstanced for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the _15_ of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.

These days, because leisure time is relatively _16_ for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional _17_ of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel _18_,” Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself _19_ a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for _20_ matters.

1.[A] boasting [B] denying [C] warning [D] ensuring

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。動詞詞義辨析。作家學者警示人們技術會代替人類勞動。boast吹噓、自負。deny否認。ensure確保。warning警示,警告。

2.[A] inequality [B] instability [C] unreliability [D] uncertainty

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。上下文理解。根據后文富人會擁有所有資產,貧困地區也會扎堆,可以看出此處想表達不平等的意思。inequality不平等,instability不穩定性,unreliability不可靠性,uncertainty不確定性。

3.[A] policy [B]guideline [C] resolution [D] prediction

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。詞義辨析。policy政策,guideline指導方針,resolution決心,prediction預測。該句意為:另外一種預測認為……。

4.[A] characterized [B]divided [C] balanced [D]measured

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。動詞詞義辨析。該句意為未來社會的特點是無目的性。

5. [A] wisdom [B] meaning [C] glory [D] freedom

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。詞義辨析,上下文理解。沒有了工作富裕生活的意義,人們會變得懶散沮喪。其他幾項不符合題意。

6. [A] Instead [B] Indeed [C] Thus [D] Nevertheless

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B?疾楦痹~。Indeed實際上,那些失業者生活并不美好。

7.[A] rich [B] urban [C]working [D] educated

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。上下文理解。前面提到失業的美國人在和工作的美國人做對比。

8.[A] explanation [B] requirement [C] compensation [D] substitute

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。詞義辨析。死亡率升高,心理健康問題等是因為沒有工資待遇較好的工作,這就解釋了原因問題。Explanation符合題意。

9.[A] under [B] beyond [C] alongside [D] among

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。介詞辨析。沒有受到良好教育的中年人中間這些問題比較嚴重。

10.[A] leave behind [B] make up [C] worry about [D] set aside

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。固定搭配意思辨析。Worry about擔心,leave behind丟棄,使落后make up 組成,set aside 留出,把……放在一旁。該句意為這就是為什么人們擔心未來無工作的無聊。

11.[A] statistically [B] occasionally [C] necessarily [D] economically

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。副詞詞義辨析。Necessarily必然地,statistically統計地,occasionally偶然地,economically經濟上地。該句想表達并不必然的意思。

12.[A] chances [B] downsides [C] benefits [D] principles

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。理解上下文。前面說沒有工作會導致不安,這些觀念是來源于在職業概念的社會中失業的消極面。

13. [A] absence [B] height [C] face [D] course

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。固定搭配。In absence of 缺乏,in height of 在…高度,in face of 面臨,in course of 在…中。該句意為如果沒有工作,也就是in absence of job。

14. [A] disturb [B] restore [C] exclude [D] yield

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。動詞詞義辨析。沒有工作的社會能為人們帶來放松。Yield 有獲得,帶來的意思,disturb打擾,妨礙,restore恢復,交還,exclude排斥

15. [A] model [B] practice [C] virtue [D] hardship

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。詞義辨析。根據后面工作的缺點可以推測此處想表達工作的優點被過分夸大了。virtue優點,好處。

16.[A] tricky [B] lengthy [C] mysterious [D] scarce

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。詞義辨析和上下文理解。休閑時間對工作人來說相對較少。

17.[A] demands [B] standards [C] qualities [D] threats

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。詞義辨析。閑暇時間來平衡人們的智力和情感需求。

18.[A] ignored [B] tired [C] confused [D] starved

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。詞義理解。下班回到家感覺到疲憊。Starved饑餓的。

19.[A] off [B] against [C] behind [D] into

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。固定搭配和介詞使用。Throw into投身于,throw off擺脫,throw against扔掉,throw behind拋開。投身到自己的愛好之中。

20. [A] technological [B] professional [C] educational [D] interpersonal

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。詞義辨析。一些需要專業技能的項目。

【試題點評】完型填空為了測試考生實際應用英語的能力和語感。具體說來,是從語篇的角度綜合測試考生的閱讀理解能力、詞匯的掌握和對英語習慣用語的熟悉程度、以及語法規則的靈活運用。這部分大家一定要注重思路和尋找線索能力的訓練,一般做題的基本思路是,根據已知信息去填空,根據空前后的線索來選擇填什么。比方說,題目讓考生填主句的內容,那么從句中就會有相應的說明。題目讓考生填動詞,原文常常在別的地方出現這個動詞的同義詞。那么如何判斷呢?首先根據需要填寫動詞后面出現的賓語,找到有同一賓語的句子,該句中的動詞就是所需填寫詞的同義詞。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網強化階段英語強化班的完型填空部分有重點講解。

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text 1

Every Saturday morning, at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley’s world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour.

Parkrun is succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to level a nation of sport lovers away from their couches。 The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run—up to 2012—but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation.” The success of Parkrun offers answers。

Parkun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sports and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.

Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally “grassroots”, concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods—making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education。 Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.

1.According to Paragraph1, Parkrun has______.

[A] gained great popularity

[B] created many jobs

[C] strengthened community ties

[D] become an official festival

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。通過題干可以定位在第一段,可以通過,每天超過五萬人跑步、引發了400場運動在英國和在國外等信息得知,公園跑很受歡迎。

2.The author believes that London’s Olympic “legacy” has failed to______.

[A] boost population growth

[B] promote sport participation

[C] improve the city’s image

[D] increase sport hours in schools

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。通過題干倫敦和奧林匹克遺產可以定位到第二段,題目問的是倫敦奧運會的遺產沒有做成什么事,題干中的failed to可以對應第二段即使看到了failing,但并沒有答案。再往下看,倫敦奧運會承諾,人口將會更健康、更多冠軍,但這并沒有發生,not happed才真正對應failed to.

3.Parkrun is different from Olympic games in that it______.

[A] aims at discovering talents

[B] focuses on mass competition

[C] does not emphasize elitism

[D] does not attract first-timers

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。這道題定位在第三段的中間,奧林匹克的倡導者相反,想要更多的參與運動創造更多的精英。

4.With regard to mass sport, the author holds that governments should______.

[A] organize “grassroots” sports events

[B] supervise local sports associations

[C] increase funds for sports clubs

[D] invest in public sports facilities

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。提到大眾體育,作者認為政府應該投資公共的體育設施。政府在第四段的中間,講到政府應該訓練的空間、用錢去鋪設網球場。這里是答案的同意轉換。

5.The author’s attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is______.

[A] tolerant

[B] critical

[C] uncertain

[D] sympathetic

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。最后一段but轉折后說,繼任的政府賣綠地、減少本地政府的預算同時減少在體育方面的關注度,所以持批判態度。

Text 2

With so much focus on children's use of screens, it's easy for parents to forget about their own screen use. “Tech is designed to really suck on you in,” says Jenny Radesky in her study of digital play, “and digital products are there to promote maximal engagement. It makes it hard to disengage, and leads to a lot of bleed-over into the family routine.”

Radesky has studied the use of mobile phones and tablets at mealtimes by giving mother-child pairs a food-testing exercise. She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children. During a separate observation, she saw that phones became a source of tension in the family. Parents would be looking at their emails while the children would be making excited bids for their attention.

Infants are wired to look at parents' faces to try to understand their world, and if those faces are blank and unresponsive — as they often are when absorbed in a device — it can be extremely disconcerting foe the children. Radesky cites the “still face experiment” devised by developmental psychologist Ed Tronick in the 1970s. In it, a mother is asked to interact with her child in a normal way before putting on a blank expression and not giving them any visual social feedback; The child becomes increasingly distressed as she tries to capture her mother's attention. “Parents don't have to be exquisitely parents at all times, but there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child's verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need,” says Radesky.

On the other hand, Tronick himself is concerned that the worries about kids' use of screens are born out of an "oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting" with their children: “It's based on a somewhat fantasized, very white, very upper-middle-class ideology that says if you're failing to expose your child to 30,000 words you are neglecting them.” Tronick believes that just because a child isn't learning from the screen doesn't mean there's no value to it—particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child. Parents, he says, can get a lot out of using their devices to speak to a friend or get some work out of the way. This can make them feel happier, which lets then be more available to their child the rest of the time.

26. According to Jenny Radesky, digital products are designed to ______.

[A]simplify routine matters

[B]absorb user attention

[C]better interpersonal relations

[D]increase work efficiency

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。細節題。根據題原文第一段“……digital products are there to promote maximal engagement.”可知,B選項中absorb和promote對應,user attention和engagement 對應。

27. Radesky's food-testing exercise shows that mothers' use of devices ______.

[A]takes away babies' appetite

[B]distracts children's attention

[C]slows down babies' verbal development

[D]reduces mother-child communication

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。細節題。根據原文第二段“She found that mothers who sued devices during the exercise started 20 percent fewer verbal and 39 percent fewer nonverbal interactions with their children.” 可知,D選項中reduce communication和started fewer verbal and fewer nonverbal interactions對應。

28. Radesky's cites the "still face experiment" to show that _______.

[A]it is easy for children to get used to blank expressions

[B]verbal expressions are unnecessary for emotional exchange

[C]children are insensitive to changes in their parents' mood

[D]parents need to respond to children's emotional needs

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。例證題。根據原文第三段“……there needs to be a balance and parents need to be responsive and sensitive to a child's verbal or nonverbal expressions of an emotional need” 可知,D選項中need to respond to children' s emotional needs和本句同意替換。因此D選項是正確選項。

29. The oppressive ideology mentioned by Tronick requires parents to_______.

[A]protect kids from exposure to wild fantasies

[B]teach their kids at least 30,000 words a year

[C]ensure constant interaction with their children

[D]remain concerned about kid's use of screens

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。細節題。根據原文第四段“……oppressive ideology that demands that parents should always be interacting with their children.”可知,C選項中constant interaction 與always be interacting 同義替換,因此C選項是正確選項。

30. According to Tronick, kid's use of screens may_______.

[A]give their parents some free time

[B]make their parents more creative

[C]help them with their homework

[D]help them become more attentive

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。細節題。根據原文第四段“……particularly if it gives parents time to have a shower, do housework or simply have a break from their child.”可知,A選項give their parents some free time和gives parents time 同義替換。

Text 3

Today, widespread social pressure to immediately go to college in conjunction with increasingly high expectations in a fast-moving world often causes students to completely overlook the possibility of taking a gap year. After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn't it? And after going to school for 12 years, it doesn't feel natural to spend a year doing something that isn't academic.

But while this may be true, it's not a good enough reason to condemn gap years. There's always a constant fear of falling behind everyone else on the socially perpetuated "race to the finish line," whether that be toward graduate school, medical school or lucrative career. But despite common misconceptions, a gap year does not hinder the success of academic pursuits-in fact, it probably enhances it.

Studies from the United States and Australia show that students who take a gap year are generally better prepared for and perform better in college than those who do not. Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes-all things that first-year students often struggle with the most. Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.

If you're not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, nearly 80 percent of college students end up changing their majors at least once. This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes. It’s not necessarily a bad thing, but depending on the school, it can be costly to make up credits after switching too late in the game. At Boston College, for example, you would have to complete an extra year were you to switch to the nursing school from another department. Taking a gap year to figure things out initially can help prevent stress and save money later on.

31. One of the reasons for high-school graduates not taking a gap year is that_____.

[A]they think it academically misleading

[B]they have a lot of fun to expect in college

[C]it feels strange to do differently from others

[D]it seems worthless to take off-campus courses

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。細節題。根據原文第一段第二句話“After all, if everyone you know is going to college in the fall, it seems silly to stay back a year, doesn’t it?”可知,本句用反問的形式表達了原因之一在于他們不想和其他人不同。所以C正確。

32. Studies from the US and Australia imply that taking a gap year helps_____.

[A]keep students from being unrealistic

[B]lower risks in choosing careers

[C]ease freshmen's financial burdens

[D]relieve freshmen of pressures

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。細節題。根據原文第三段的第二句話“Rather than pulling students back, a gap year pushes them ahead by preparing them for independence, new responsibilities and environmental changes—all things that first-year students often struggle with the most.”可知,此句中pushes them ahead by preparing them for...與D選項 relieve freshmen of 進行同義改寫。often struggle with the most對應的是本句中的Pressure,first-years students 對應freshmen。D選項全方位替換。

33. The word "acclimation" (Line 8, Para. 3) is closest in meaning to_____.

[A]adaptation

[B]application

[C]motivation

[D]competition

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。詞義題。根據原文第三段最后一句話“Gap year experiences can lessen the blow when it comes to adjusting to college and being thrown into a brand new environment, making it easier to focus on academics and activities rather than acclimation blunders.”可知,當談到適應大學生活并且很快融入到一個全新的環境這個問題時,擁有空檔年方面的經驗可以減少相關的打擊,這就使得專注去學習并且參與活動而不是______更容易。各選項代入,A最符合語義,和前面的adjusting to形成復現。

34. A gap year may save money for students by helping them_____.

[A]avoid academic failures

[B]establish long-term goals

[C]switch to another college

[D]decide on the right major

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。細節題。根據原文第四段第一句和第三句話“If you’re not convinced of the inherent value in taking a year off to explore interests, then consider its financial impact on future academic choices.”可知,本句中financial impact與題干中的money 相對應,順沿看后面的信息第三句“This isn’t surprising, considering the basic mandatory high school curriculum leaves students with a poor understanding of themselves listing one major on their college applications, but switching to another after taking college classes.”可知,學生在確定專業時會有困難。綜合前后語義,可知 D正確。

35. The most suitable title for this text would be_____.

[A]In Favor of the Gap Year

[B]The ABCs of the Gap Year

[C]The Gap Year Comes Back

[D]The Gap Year: A Dilemma

【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。主旨題。本文開篇通過學生對于空檔年的看法——不接受,引出文章的主題詞the Gap Year。第二段通過BUT作為轉折,引出作者的態度,提到空檔年的各種好處,可以幫助新生緩解壓力,可以幫助學生確定專業以減少經濟上的一些損失,由此可見,作者是支持、贊成的態度。所以A選項正確。

Text 4

Though often viewed as a problem for western states, the growing frequency of wildfires is a national concern because of its impact on federal tax dollars, says Professor Max Moritz, a specialist in fire ecology and management.

In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires-nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago. In effect, fewer federal funds today are going towards the agency's other work-such as forest conservation, watershed and cultural resources management, and infrastructure upkeep-that affect the lives of all Americans.

Another nationwide concern is whether public funds from other agencies are going into construction in fire-prone districts. As Moritz puts it, how often are federal dollars building homes that are likely to be lost to a wildfire?

“It's already a huge problem from a public expenditure perspective for the whole country,” he says. We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?” “Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?”

Such a view would require a corresponding shift in the way US society today views fire, researchers say.

For one thing, conversations about wildfires need to be more inclusive. Over the past decade, the focus has been on climate change-how the warming of the Earth from greenhouse gases is leading to conditions that worsen fires.

While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn't come at the expense of the rest of the equation.

“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be. Our perception of the problem and of what the solution is becomes very limited.”

At the same time, people continue to treat fire as an event that needs to be wholly controlled and unleashed only out of necessity, says Professor Balch at the University of Colorado. But acknowledging fire's inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible, she says.

“We've disconnected ourselves from living with fire,” Balch says. “It is really important to understand and try and tease out what is the human connection with fire today.”

36.More frequent wildfires have become a national concern because in 2015 they_____.

[A]exhausted unprecedented management efforts

[B]consumed a record-high percentage of budget

[C]severely damaged the ecology of western states

[D]caused a huge rise of infrastructure expenditure

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。細節題,根據原文第二段“In 2015, the US Forest Service for the first time spent more than half of its $5.5 billion annual budget fighting fires—nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago.”可知,B選項中a record-high percentage of budget與nearly double the percentage it spent on such efforts 20 years ago對應,因此B選項是正確選項。

37.Moritz calls for the use of “a magnifying glass” to _____.

[A]raise more funds for fire-prone areas

[B]avoid the redirection of federal money

[C]find wildfire-free parts of the landscape

[D]guarantee safer spending of public funds

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。細節題,根據原文第四We need to take a magnifying glass to that. Like, “Wait a minute, is this OK?” “Do we want instead to redirect those funds to concentrate on lower-hazard parts of the landscape?”可知,選項D guarantee safer spending of public funds是本句的同義替換,因此D選項是正確選項。

38.While admitting that climate is a key element, Moritz notes that _____.

[A]public debates have not settled yet

[B]fire-fighting conditions are improving

[C]other factors should not be overlooked

[D]a shift in the view of fire has taken place

【答案】C

【解析】答案為C。細節題,根據原文第七段“While climate is a key element, Moritz says, it shouldn’t come at the expense of the rest of the equation.”可知,選項C other factors should not be overlooked 是對本句的同義替換,因此選項C是正確選項。

39.The overly simplified view Moritz mentions is a result of failing to _____.

[A]discover the fundamental makeup of nature

[B]explore the mechanism of the human systems

[C]maximize the role of landscape in human life

[D]understand the interrelations of man and nature

【答案】D

【解析】答案為D。細節題,根據原文第八段:“The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked, and the interactions go both ways,” he says. Failing to recognize that, he notes, leads to “an overly simplified view of what the solutions might be,……”可知,選項D中 the interrelations of man and nature和The human systems and the landscapes we live on are linked對應,因此選項D是正確選項。

40.Professor Balch points out that fire is something man should _____.

[A]do away with

[B]come to terms with

[C]pay a price for

[D]keep away from

【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。細節題,根據原文第九段“But acknowledging fire’s inevitable presence in human life is an attitude crucial to developing the laws, policies, and practices that make it as safe as possible,”可知,選項B come to terms with是本句的同義替換,因此選項B 是正確選項。

【試題點評】今年四篇文章難度一般。在我們整體的考研閱讀當中,所需要具備的一個最重要的能力就是如何去看到題目之后,定準了位,并且找到那個我們真正應該找到的位置,在四個選項當中去找意思的原文最匹配的選項。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網強化階段英語強化班閱讀理解部分有重點講解。

Part B

Directions:

Read the following text and match each of the numbered items in the left column to its corresponding information in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

The decline in American manufacturing is a common refrain, particularly from Donald Trump. "We don't make anything anymore," he told Fox News, while defending his own made-in-Mexico clothing line.

Without question, manufacturing has taken a significant hit during recent decades, and further trade deals raise questions about whether new shocks could hit manufacturing.

But there is also a different way to look at the data.

Across the country, factory owners are now grappling with a new challenge: instead of having too many workers, they may end up with too few. Despite trade competition and outsourcing, American manufacturing still needs to replace tens of thousands of retiring boomers every years. Millennials may not be that interested in taking their place, other industries are recruiting them with similar or better pay.

For factory owners, it all adds up to stiff competition for workers-and upward pressure on wages. "They're harder to find and they have job offers," says Jay Dunwell, president of Wolverine Coil Spring, a family-owned firm, "They may be coming [into the workforce], but they've been plucked by other industries that are also doing an well as manufacturing," Mr. Dunwell has begun bringing high school juniors to the factory so they can get exposed to its culture.

At RoMan Manufacturing, a maker of electrical transformers and welding equipment that his father cofounded in 1980, Robert Roth keep a close eye on the age of his nearly 200 workers, five are retiring this year. Mr. Roth has three community-college students enrolled in a work-placement program, with a starting wage of $13 an hour that rises to $17 after two years.

At a worktable inside the transformer plant, young Jason Stenquist looks flustered by the copper coils he's trying to assemble and the arrival of two visitors. It's his first week on the job. Asked about his choice of career, he says at high school he considered medical school before switching to electrical engineering. "I love working with tools. I love creating." he says.

But to win over these young workers, manufacturers have to clear another major hurdle: parents, who lived through the worst US economic downturn since the Great Depression, telling them to avoid the factory. Millennials "remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession," says Birgit Klohs, chief executive of The Right Place, a business development agency for western Michigan.

These concerns aren't misplaced: Employment in manufacturing has fallen from 17 million in 1970 to 12 million in 2013. When the recovery began, worker shortages first appeared in the high-skilled trades. Now shortages are appearing at the mid-skill levels.

"The gap is between the jobs that take to skills and those that require a lot of skill," says Rob Spohr, a business professor at Montcalm Community College. "There're enough people to fill the jobs at McDonalds and other places where you don't need to have much skill. It's that gap in between, and that's where the problem is."

Julie Parks of Grand Rapids Community points to another key to luring Millennials into manufacturing: a work/life balance. While their parents were content to work long hours, young people value flexibility. "Overtime is not attractive to this generation. They really want to live their lives," she says.

[A] says that he switched to electrical engineering because he loves working with tools.

41. Jay Deuwell [B] points out that there are enough people to fill the jobs that don’t need much skill.

42. Jason Stenquist [C] points out that the US doesn’t manufacture anything anymore.

43. Birgit Klohs [D] believes that it is important to keep a close eye on the age of his workers.

44. Rob Spohr [E] says that for factory owners, workers are harder to find because of stiff competition.

45.Julie Parks [F] points out that a work/life balance can attract young people into manufacturing.

[G] says that the manufacturing recession is to blame for the lay-off the young people’s parents.

41.【答案】E

【解析】答案為E。根據題干人名Jay Deuwell定位文中“They’re harder to find and they have job offers,”他們很難發現他們有工作邀請。harder對應選項 stiff(艱難地)。答案選E。

42. 【答案】A

【解析】答案為A。根據題干人名Jason Stenquist對應文中“I love working with tools. I love creating”,我愛與工具打交道,我喜歡創新,tool對應選項tools。答案選A。

43. 【答案】G

【解析】答案為G。根據題干人名Birgit Klohs,定位文中“remember their father and mother both were laid off. They blame it on the manufacturing recession,”記住他們的爸爸媽媽都下崗了,他們歸因于生產蕭條。文中blame對應選項blame。答案選G。

44. 【答案】B

【解析】答案為B。根據人名Rob Spohr,對應文中“The gap is between the jobs that take no skills and those that require a lot of skill,”工作之間的差距是那個不需要技能,而那些需要很多技能。文中skill對應選項skill(技能)。答案選B。

45. 【答案】F

【解析】答案為F。題干問Julie的觀點,對應文中“We’ve never had so much attention from manufacturers.”我從沒有得到過這么多來自制造商的注意,attraction對應選項attract(吸引)。答案選F。

【試題點評】新題型要求考生從整體上把握文章的邏輯結構和內容上的聯系,理解句子之間、段落之間的關系,對諸如連貫性、一致性等語段特征有較強的意識和熟練的把握,并具備運用語法知識分析理解長難句的能力。新題型有三種題型,不同的題型考查的重點不同,因此有不同的解題思路和技巧,需要考生全面把握,尤其是對于完形填句(段)題和排序題,是對語言能力和閱讀理解能力的綜合測試,因此在要求上遠遠高于小標題選擇題和觀點例證題,考生有必要對這類題型的答題思路多練習,以提高自己在這個部分的應試能力。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網強化階段英語強化班新題型部分有重點講解。

Section III Translation

Directions:

Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

46.My Dream

My dream has always been to work somewhere in an area between fashion and publishing. Two years before graduating from secondary school, I took a sewing and design course thinking that I would move on to a fashion design course. However, during that course I realised that I was not good enough in this area to compete with other creative personalities in the future, so I decided that it was not the right path for me. Before applying for university I told everyone that I would study journalism, because writing was, and still is, one of my favourite activities. But, to be absolutely honest, I said it, because I thought that fashion and me together was just a dream - I knew that no one, apart from myself, could imagine me in the fashion industry at all! So I decided to look for some fashion-related courses that included writing. This is when I noticed the course “Fashion Media & Promotion”.

【答案】我的夢想

我一直夢想著能找到一個結合時尚與出版的工作。中學畢業前兩年,我學習了縫紉設計課程,認為自己繼而能夠學習時尚設計。然而,期間,發現自己在該領域不夠優秀,不足以在未來與其他富有創造力的人競爭。因此,得出結論:這條道路不適合我。在申請大學之前,我告訴大家自己會選擇新聞專業,因為寫作一直都是我最喜歡的事情之一。但是,說實話,當時這樣說,是因為我認為時尚于我而言就是個夢想。我知道完全沒有人相信我會進入時尚這一行。因此,我決定去尋找一些課程,既與時尚相關、又涉及寫作。就在這時,我注意到了《時尚媒體與營銷》這門課程。

【試題點評】翻譯考查考生在準確理解的基礎上,按照英語語法結構拆分句子,準確、通順翻譯漢語的能力。本次考試的翻譯考點主要包含對并列句、定語從句、狀語從句及固定詞組等翻譯的考查。具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網基礎階段英語基礎班班的翻譯部分有重點講解。

Section IV Writing

Part A

47. Directions: Suppose you are invited by Professor Williams to give a presentation about Chinese culture to a group of international students. Write a reply to

1) accept the invitation, and

2) introduce the key points of your presentation

You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

Don’t use your own name, use “Li Ming” instead.

Don’t write your address. (10 points)

【參考范文】

Dear Professor Williams,

I felt much honored when I received your invitation to give a presentation about Chinese culture to the international students of your college. I would much like to do this job. So I am writing to tell you something about the presentation to be given.

The focus of my presentation will be Chinese traditional festivals, such as the Spring Festival and the Mid-autumn Day. In the speech, I will introduce the origin and conventions of these festivals. For example, the Mid-Autumn Day, falling on the 15th of August in the Chinese lunar calendar, is a traditional Chinese holiday for family members and loved ones to gather together. In addition to enjoying the glorious full moon on this day, Chinese people will also eat festival-moon cakes, recite ancient Chinese poems as well as guess lantern riddles. I believe these knowledge will help the foreign students obtain a deeper understanding of Chinese culture.

I am really looking forward to sharing these with all of the international students.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

【試題點評】具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網基礎階段英語基礎班的作文部分有重點講解。

Part B

48. Directions:

You should write about 150 words neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

【參考范文】

Reflected in the chart given above are the respective changes in the numbers of museums and their visitors in China from the year 2013 to 2015. It can be clearly seen that the number of museums was on a continuous rise from 6378 to 7811 in the two years, up more than 22%, and so did that of the visitors, with an increase of nearly 13% from 4165 to 4692.

What might account for the notable growths? Reasons are many, but the most important one, as far as I am concerned, is that with the boom of Chinese economy in recent years, our government has been placing an increasingly high value on the inheritance of traditional culture, which connects modern people with the historical past, allowing them to acquire a cultural and historical identity. What’s more, more attention is paid to tour Chinese traditional culture since the Chinese have improved living standards.

With the development of China, the increasing trend is bound to continue for some time in the future. From my perspective, it is a positive trend and should be encouraged, for it is not only beneficial for the preservation and rejuvenation of our ancestral heritages but also conducive to the cultural diversity of the world.

【試題點評】具體相關知識點和解題思路在考研教育網基礎階段英語基礎班的作文部分有重點講解。

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